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The location of the ancient city is the suburb of Ain Shams (Arabic: , "Sun-Eye" or "Eye of the Sun").The ancient Egyptian name for the area is thought to be Khere-Ohe, "The Place of Combat", supposedly in reference to a mythical battle that took place between Seth and Horus.
Ruling from Constantinople, Sultan Selim I relegated Egypt to a province, with Cairo as its capital.
Meanwhile, Cairo flourished as a centre of Islamic scholarship and a crossroads on the spice trade route among the civilisations in Afro-Eurasia.
By 1340, Cairo had a population of close to half a million, making it the largest city west of China.
However, in 1168 the Fatimids under the leadership of vizier Shawar set fire to Fustat to prevent Cairo's capture by the Crusaders.
Egypt's capital was permanently moved to Cairo, which was eventually expanded to include the ruins of Fustat and the previous capitals of al-Askar and al-Qatta'i.