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Grey matter (which is only grey in preserved tissue, and is better described as pink or light brown in living tissue) contains a high proportion of cell bodies of neurons.

White matter is composed mainly of myelinated axons, and takes its color from the myelin.

A protoplasmic fiber runs from the cell body and branches profusely, with some parts transmitting signals and other parts receiving signals.

Thus, most parts of the insect brain have passive cell bodies arranged around the periphery, while the neural signal processing takes place in a tangle of protoplasmic fibers called neuropil, in the interior.

Most nerves serve both functions and are called mixed nerves.

The PNS is divided into a) somatic and b) autonomic nervous system, and c) the enteric nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is further subdivided into the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems.

In the insect nervous system, the brain is anatomically divided into the protocerebrum, deutocerebrum, and tritocerebrum.

Immediately behind the brain is the subesophageal ganglion, which is composed of three pairs of fused ganglia.

In insects, many neurons have cell bodies that are positioned at the edge of the brain and are electrically passive—the cell bodies serve only to provide metabolic support and do not participate in signalling.Recent findings indicate that glial cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, serve as important resident immune cells within the central nervous system.The vertebrate nervous system can also be divided into areas called grey matter ("gray matter" in American spelling) and white matter.Both autonomic and enteric nervous systems function involuntarily.Nerves that exit from the cranium are called cranial nerves while those exiting from the spinal cord are called spinal nerves.

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